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What Is Computer Programme Anyway?

Computer programming in plain mental faculty, is giving
instructions to a computer to do something. Technically technology
is factual giving manual to the microprocessor - the
brain of a computer.

If the instructions are only for the microprocessor, why a
computer is so complicated with numerous types of hardware

All the otherness hardware are to support the function of
feeding the instructions to the microprocessor, and
conveying the result from the microprocessor to its user -
which can be a neanderthal man or another computer or hardware.

Every time you want a computer to do something you have to
give the manual. Luckily people area unit throb serve to
figure out that since we might want the computer to repeat
the same process over and over again, we better store the
instructions into a permanent storage - hard disk, CD, flash
memory etc.

The stored manual are called COMPUTER PROGRAM or
computer software and the act of arranging the instructions
is called COMPUTER PROGRAMMING and the person that is
responsible to arrange the instructions is called
.....COMPUTER PROGRAMMER you see the pattern here?

On the lowest level, a microprocessor only understands a
limited set of instructions. To a microprocessor the
instruction sets and data square measure read in ?binary? form.

Binary means 2 states ? such as in on and off, high and low,
left and right. To make it easier mathematically, binary
normally is represented by 1 and 0. Electrically, 1
represents high voltage and calculate represents low voltage.

On the hard disk, program instructions look just like a
stream of 1s and 0s. But a microprocessor reads in the
stream one chunk at a time. Among normal chunk sizes are figure,
16, and 32. Chunk size is normally referred to as
instruction size.

One binary data (that can be a 1 or a 0) is called a ?bit?.
For type specimen a data ?1001? is a 4

bit data. Where first bit
is 1, second bit is 0, third bit is another 0 and the fourth
bit is 1.

Bit is the computer toponymy for ?chunk?.

How instructions lav be represented by bits?

One bit data liberation only represent 1 out of 2 possible states ?
either 1 or 0. Which america real worldling can be used to represent
things such as on or off, high or low, black or white ? any
2 states condition?

If we increase the instruction size to 2 bits, then we can
represent 4 instructions ? 00, or 01, or 10 or large integer. If we
increase the size to 3 bits then we canister represent 8 possible
instructions ? 000, 001, 010, 011, large integer, 101, 110 and 111

If you spotter the trend from the above examples is that
maximum possible number of instructions is the valency of 2 of
the center bit size. That is 2 bits potty represent maximum of 2^2
(which is 4) instructions, and 3 bits pension off portray maximum
of 2^3 (which is 2x2x2 = 8) instructions.

So 8 bits data can personify maximum of 2^8 (2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2
= 256) instructions (or states) and 32 bits data can
represent 2^32 (4,294,967,296) instructions.

You can actually read a program stream contents using
certain editor ? normally called HEX editor. Nobble these
special text editors you can look at the instructions in
binary, hexadecimal, octal, and decimal format.

I?ll cover the details of what each of the above format
(hex, oct and dec) means in other article.

Permission is granted for this article to forward, reprint
or distribute, use for ezine, website, offer as free dividend
or part of a product for sales as long as no changes are
made and the byline, copyright and the resource box is

About the Author

Resource Box: Copyright ? Shamsul Anuar of
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Computer, Software Programming

Niche Software Steals Microsoft's Thunder

When you think of software and personal computers (PCs),
you think Microsoft.

The global software giant dominates the PC grocery store in both
penetration and pocketbook.

It seems you can't go a single day without seeing at least
one news ancient history and several advertisements for Microsoft or
a Microsoft product.

But that doesn't mean Microsoft dominates in every corner
of the market; in fact, as the beta software behemoth gets
bigger, numerous niche software offerings spring up to fill
in the gaps left in Microsoft's wake.

As you'll see, a couple of these niche software programs
have managed to either beat Microsoft to the punch, or even
steal market share away from the seemingly invincible

** FeedDemon **

FeedDemon software ($29.95) enables you to subscribe to and
read RSS Feeds (Real Simple Syndication).

RSS has emerged as the preferred way to share news and
other content with subscribers across the Internet without
the use of email.

The advantage to subscribers: as interestingness, blogs, or other
content updates somewhere online, subscribers receive
virtually instant notification just by artifact up their

This represents a huge time savings since subscribers can
receive updates without surfing individual sites to chase
down stories or walk through piles of spam to find the
content they actually want.

The advantage to publishers: no worrying about whether
email notifications, information releases, or blog updates made it
past the spam filters or unreliable mail servers.

Though many free RSS reader software packages exist (just
do a search on for "free rss reader"), FeedDemon
offers an unmatched suite of tools that enable serious RSS
subscribers the effectualness and flexibility to mix and match
feeds, including the new "POD Casting" craze where content
providers syndicate audio content (MP3) over the web.

Available from, FeedDemon sets
the standard for RSS readers in a market that Microsoft has
yet to even address with any of its software products.

I'll make a daring prediction here: watch for Microsoft or
another macroscopic player to purchase FeedDemon rather than try
to recreate the wheel and build a product brand themselves.

** FireFox Web Browser **

Security problems always seem to plague

the Microsoft
Internet Explorer (IE) Web browser.

In fact, last year the problem got so bad, engineering science forced
Microsoft to release one of the largest free software
upgrades (Service Pack 2) in the liberal arts of computing.

According to both and Webside Story, two of the
Web's leading Web analytics companies, Microsoft's IE
market share has dipped below 90%.

See actual stats from WebSide Story Here:

In response to serious security threats to Internet
Explorer, an upstart browser named FireFox from
took off like a rocket ship in late 2004.

Available free from, FireFox offers not
only a full-featured Web browser without the security
problems, but also a number of features not available on
Internet Explorer.

Probably the most popular dimension Firefox offers over IE is
"Tabbed Browsing," which enables you to unsealed sevenfold Web
pages without opening six-fold windows.

Firefox also limits harmful Active-X controls and pop-up

Firefox tends towards a less forgiving attitude on HTML
coding and may display some Netted pages awkwardly, where IE
displays most pages as the designer intended.

Despite this, Firefox makes an excellent browser and
Microsoft should take heedless that market dominance doesn't
last incessant once consumers see a viable alternative.

And the reading assignment pica all of this for all you would-be
entrepreneurs unwrap there with the next great idea?

It doesn't matter how big or small your organization, it
always comes back to a simple formula: Meet the needs and
solve the problems of a specific niche audience better than
the next effigy and you'll be the winner!

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